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Cold Blooded Creatures

Cold Blooded Creatures Step into the world of a herpetologist at the Virginia Living museum and meet Travis Land who cares for the museum's many cold-blooded creatures!

Become A Citizen Scientist With FrogWatch USA!

We’ve seen quite a bit of rain over the last few weeks, and now as the temperatures start to rise, the Virginia Living Museum FrogWatch USA chapter is preparing to take to the field once more! One of the museum’s conservation initiatives, FrogWatch USA is a nation-wide citizen science program that observes and records data on native frog and toad populations. We rely heavily on our dedicated volunteer “froggers” for this data collection and we want YOU to join in on the amphibian action!

Photo Credit: Karl Rebenstorf

What is “citizen science”?

Citizen science is pretty much exactly what it sounds like: scientific studies largely being conducted by regular citizens. It’s a community based study that allows the general public to directly input data, thus greatly increasing the area and effectiveness of study! In the case of FrogWatch, this is critical to the program’s success; a small group of biologists would only be able to sample a small study area for a limited window of time. However, by relying on public observations, we can collect vast amounts of data all across the country, year after year!

Photo Credit: Karl Rebenstorf

What is FrogWatch USA?

Created by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, FrogWatch USA is a citizen science program with over 150 chapters across the United States. FrogWatch volunteers monitor frog and toad populations across the country, and upload their observations to a national database called FieldScope. The data collected on FieldScope is utilized in a variety of studies and land management strategies because it is such an effective means of large-scale population monitoring! Because frogs can be difficult to spot, volunteers are trained to identify different species by their unique breeding calls rather than by a visual observation. This also allows them to make a vague estimate about the population density based on whether just a couple frogs can be heard or an explosive chorus!

What if I don’t know anything about frogs?

Our volunteers come from a wide range of educational and professional backgrounds. It doesn’t matter if you have a PhD in Herpetology or if you just know that frogs are little green things that jump; we will teach you everything you need to know! We will cover basic frog/toad/amphibian biology, introduce you to the ecosystems that frogs and toads call home, and of course train you to identify these animals by their unique voice. Many of our volunteers have little to no scientific background; this is the beauty of citizen science as it allows people to engage in research where they might otherwise never have an opportunity!

Does it require a lot of time? What are the costs?

The FrogWatch program and training are completely FREE (in fact, we’ll even provide food during the training!). You will get a free folder containing data sheets, site registration forms, a frog guide pamphlet, and frog call CD at the start of the session. While you can always purchase additional materials such as guide books, everything you need to be an active FrogWatch volunteer will be provided to you at no charge! FrogWatch also requires only a limited amount of your time and effort (not many people want to spend a lot of their free time looking for frogs!). In fact, the biggest time commitment is simply the training. Two training sessions are held a week apart (you must attend both) and generally run 3-4 hours. Once that’s done, the chapter requires very little of your time: each data collection period is only THREE MINUTES long and can be conducted in your own backyard if conditions are right! Just a few minutes of your time each month (or even year) can provide the program with valuable data!

How do I join up?

You can contact the chapter coordinators to schedule your training. If you are unable to attend a session this year, we can also put you on our contact list and schedule you for an early training session next year. We look forward to hearing from you, and getting you prepared to be a citizen scientist!

Travis Land (travis.land@thevlm.org)

Thomas Waser (thomas.waser@thevlm.org

Photo Credit: Karl Rebenstorf

Herp Highlight #10: Canebrake Rattlesnake

One of the VLM’s most popular reptile residents makes his home in our Mountain Cove habitarium. As first glance, he may go unnoticed by guests, as his colors blend in quite effectively with his surroundings, but disturb his wild brethren and you will hear the unmistakable sound of their warning. Waiting patiently to ambush his prey is our Canebrake Rattlesnake.

Photo Credit: Karl Rebenstorf

Yes, Virginia is home to rattlesnakes; in fact, some of them reside a little bit closer to the Virginia Living Museum than you may realize! Timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) typically range throughout the mountains of western Virginia, however an isolated population known as the Canebrake rattlesnake inhabits the south-east portion of the state. Though isolated and bearing a different name, they are indeed of the same species as the Timber, though debate continues regarding their status as a subspecies. Canebrake rattlesnakes can rarely be found in Newport News, most encountered around Sandy Bottom Nature park, though their numbers are dwindling due to human encroachment. The Canebrake has a Tier II Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating (Very High Conservation Need), meaning they face a high risk of extirpation (becoming extinct in one area but existing elsewhere).

Photo Credit: Karl Rebenstorf

Like Virginia’s other venomous snakes, the rattlesnake is a pit viper, named for the small pit that exists between the eye and nostril. The pit, combined with their cat-like slit pupils, allows the snake to sense prey even in complete darkness. Rattlesnakes are large bodied, and behave as ambush predators, lying in wait for days at a time for prey to come within reach. They then lash out with an incredibly fast strike, envenomating prey with their deadly venom (fun fact: a rattlesnake’s strike lasts between 44 and 70 milliseconds; by comparison, it takes you almost 200 milliseconds just to blink your eyes once!). Like all rattlesnakes, the Canebrake bears the signature rattle at the end of its tail to warn possible predators or unwary animals that may step on it, including humans.

Photo Credit: Karl Rebenstorf

Living in close proximity to such a formidable predator may raise some concerns, but you really don’t face any great danger from this snake. Though they do bear venom that can be potentially life-threatening to an adult human, several factors greatly diminish the risk posed by the Canebrake rattlesnake:

  1. They are incredibly uncommon in the eastern part of the state, and are rarely encountered by humans.
  2. They are fairly docile animals. They are not quick to anger and of course do not see humans as prey so they are not an actively aggressive species.
  3.  They give plenty of warning. Because they need to conserve their precious venom for hunting prey, they prefer to warn predators/humans/animals away with their rattle. They generally will not strike unless left no other choice.

Most rattlesnake bites are sustained when an individual is trying to capture or kill a snake, or simply ignores its warning. However, while you are extremely unlikely to be harmed by a rattlesnake, it is possible you may be saved by one. Like many species of herptiles, the toxins of the rattlesnake are being studied for their medicinal potential; rattlesnake venom may be key to treating and preventing heart attacks and strokes by blocking the clotting of blood. The rattlesnake is certainly more friend than foe!

Some Rattlesnake Fun Facts!

  • There is nothing inside a rattlesnake’s rattle – it’s completely hollow. The sound is made when the segments rub against each other!
  • It is not possible to determine the snakes age by counting rattle segments, these are added when the snake sheds, and this can vary in frequency based on a multitude of conditions (they can also lose segments!).
  • Rattlesnakes are ovoviviparous. The mother snake retains her eggs inside her body; after they hatch internally, she gives live birth to her young!

Want to meet our Canebrake rattlesnake and more awesome species like him? Be sure to stop by the museum March 16-17th for our annual Reptile Weekend! Countless species will be out on display with an an impressive venomous snake collection provided by Reptile Education of Virginia! Fun for the whole family!

Reptiles! Bizarre and Beautiful (March 16th and 17th)

St. Patrick may have driven the snakes from Ireland, but there will be plenty of serpents on display at the VLM during our annual reptile weekend event, Reptiles: Bizarre and Beautiful on March 16th and 17th! Come and observe some of the most incredible species of lizards, turtles, and even crocodilians and learn about their crucial roles! The two day event will feature reptiles from all over the world, presented by organizations including Sandy Bottom Nature Park, the Virginia Herpetological Society, and Reptile Education of Virginia. Attend scheduled feedings and enrichment programs to see our animals in action, or relax and enjoy a presentation by our talented education staff! Visit the Virginia Aquarium Stranding Team, and discover what simple changes you can make to help protect marine species like the loggerhead sea turtle. Get up close and personal with a venomous snake, and discover how some of the deadliest snakes on the planet are now saving human lives everyday! For the creative lads and lasses, we have crafts, scavengers hunts, and activities for all ages! Everyone will find something to enjoy at Reptile Weekend!

Come out and celebrate the scaly side of life! See (and even touch!) some of the most amazing creatures from around the globe, and discover the beauty in these often maligned animals! So join us for a weekend of fun, learning, and reptiles!  Read more here.

Join Us for Reptiles: Bizarre and Beautiful! (March 17th &18th)

March 4, 2018

March has officially arrived which means St. Patrick’s Day is just around the corner! While many of you may already have plans to party the night away, you might be looking for something fun to do to pass the time leading up to the festivities. Why sit around waiting at home when you can visit the Virginia Living Museum for our annual Reptile Weekend event?!

St. Patrick may have driven all the snakes out of Ireland, but there will be plenty of serpents on display at the VLM, alongside countless species of lizards, turtles, and even crocodilians! The two day event will feature reptiles from all over the world, presented by organizations including Sandy Bottom Nature Park, the Virginia Herpetological Society, and Reptile Education of Virginia. Join our dedicated herpetology staff for exciting behind-the-scenes tours, and see first hand how our own reptiles and amphibians are cared for everyday. Attend scheduled feedings and enrichment programs (listed below) to see our animals in action, or relax and enjoy a presentation by our talented education staff! Visit the Virginia Aquarium Stranding Team, and discover what simple changes you can make to help protect marine species like the loggerhead sea turtle. Get up close and personal with a venomous snake, and discover how some of the deadliest snakes on the planet are now saving human lives everyday! Got the kids stuck at home for spring break? We have crafts, scavengers hunts, and activities for all ages! Everyone will find something to enjoy at Reptile Weekend!

You’ll even get to see the beautiful boy pictured here!

Reptile weekend is all about celebrating the scaly side of life! See (and even touch!) some of the most amazing creatures from around the globe, and discover the beauty in these often maligned animals! So join us for a weekend of fun, learning, and reptiles!

 

SATURDAY, MARCH 17 SUNDAY, MARCH 18
11:00 Animal Show (lab) 11:00 Animal Show (lab)
11:30am A Sky Full of Scales (planetarium) 11:30am A Sky Full of Scales (planetarium)
12:00 Animal Show (lab) 12:00 Animal Show (lab)
12:30pm Noisy Neighbors (planetarium) 12:30pm Noisy Neighbors (planetarium)
1:00 Enrichment (Swamp Turtles)* 1:00 Enrichment (Alligator)*
1:30pm A Sky Full of Scales (planetarium) 1:30pm A Sky Full of Scales (planetarium)
2:00 Animal Show (lab) 2:00 Animal Show (lab)
2:30pm Noisy Neighbors (planetarium) 2:30pm Noisy Neighbors (planetarium)
3:00pm Animal Show (lab) 3:00pm Animal Show (lab)
3:30pm A Sky Full of Scales (planetarium) 3:30pm A Sky Full of Scales (planetarium)

Plants Need Snakes Too!

February 25, 2018

Snakes do so many great things for us humans! They eat a lot of pest species such as insects, mice, rats and other rodents, animals that could cause a lot of damage or even spread diseases. Some snakes produce venom that, while occasionally hazardous, provides us with all kinds of medical products that save thousands of lives every year. They are even eaten by humans in many places around the world, directly benefiting people as a source of food. Snakes are incredibly important to us (though we may not always realize it!), but they benefit all kinds of animal species besides humans. Even plants rely on these reptiles to help shape the ecosystem!

As we all know, plants begin their lives as seeds. It is important that seeds get as far away from their “parent” as they can; growing beneath their parent puts them in direct competition for sunlight, water and nutrients. More than likely, a seed that doesn’t fall far from the tree doesn’t last long. Some seeds rely on wind to blow them away, while others are swept away by rain water. Others rely on animals for transportation, hitching a ride on fur or feathers to reach a new destination. And a few seeds even hitch a ride inside an animal! These seeds are ingested when an animal eats fruit or berries, then are excreted whole after passing through the digestive system. By the time they have been expelled, they will likely have traveled a good distance from their parent!

Rodents often eat seeds, destroying them in the process. With their large cheek pouches, they are able to collect large numbers of seeds which they will take back to their burrows and eat. However, very often these rodents are themselves caught and eaten by larger predators, and many are still carrying the seeds in their cheek pouches when they are consumed! The predator then passes the seeds through their digestive system, becoming what we call a secondary seed disperser. Herpetologists from Cornell University conducted a study that identified rattlesnakes as important secondary dispersers. Examining 50 rattlesnakes, they found the remains of a rodent meal in 45 of them, and all their digestive tracts contained 971 seeds in total! All of these seeds would likely have been destroyed by the rodents, but were able to pass through the digestive tract of the snakes, some even germinating inside the snakes’ bodies!

Think about it, that is almost 1,000 seeds saved by less than 50 snakes enjoying a single meal! These snakes likely pass a massive number of seeds every year, giving new generations of plants a second chance at life. This would have an obvious impact on the ecosystem, and directly affect plant distributions and population densities. And with rodents serving as a food source for a huge number of snake species around the world, one can only assume that snakes have played a heavy role in shaping our environment! So be sure to stop on by the Virginia Living Museum this spring and say hello to one of these amazing “ecological engineers”!

Study Link: https://www.sciencedaily.com/

Herp Highlight #9: Eastern Glass Lizard

January 10, 2018

Walking through the museum’s Chesapeake Bay Gallery, you may notice a rather small exhibit located just between our beach and saltwater marsh exhibits; a literal hole-in-the-wall. At first glance, you might believe the exhibit to be empty, save for a few sticks, rocks and a whole lot of sand. Of course, the exhibit isn’t empty! This is our dunes exhibit, and if you are lucky during your visit, you may get the chance to see one of Virginia’s most unusual (and uncommon) reptiles: the Eastern Glass Lizard!

The eastern glass lizard (Ophisaurus ventralis) is fairly unusual because of one particular feature: it completely lacks legs. While a legless lizard could very easily be mistaken for a snake, there are a couple characteristics that set them apart. Glass lizards have eyelids that open and close just like ours, while snakes lack eyelids and have a clear scale that covers the eye, so their eyes are always “open”. Lizards also have an external ear opening behind the eye that snakes completely lack. Of course, these features can be difficult to observe from a distance, but it’s always better to give a wild animal its space (especially when you aren’t completely sure what it is)!

Glass lizards are fossorial, meaning they live most of their lives underground. Their legless form allows them to move through the ground with relative ease. This unfortunately means that our own lizard spends much of its time buried, but it does make an appearance from time to time!

The glass lizard is Virginia’s longest lizard, reaching lengths between 1.5 and 2 feet when fully grown (though a record length of 42.6 inches has been documented…just not in VA!). They feed largely on arthropods: caterpillars, crickets, roaches, beetles and other bugs are on the menu for a hungry glass lizard. Though they may eat the occasional lizard, young rodent or snake, their favorite food is grasshoppers. Our own glass lizard has a taste for crickets and, once in a while, butterworms as a treat!

The glass lizard’s name comes from its defensive behavior. If confronted by a predator, the glass lizard can autotomize their tail…this means that they can literally let their tail break off, almost like they were made of glass. The tail makes up about 66% of the body, and when jettisoned, it will wiggle on its own. A predator will (hopefully) be distracted by the tail, and the lizard can make its escape. It will regrow its tail over the next few months, though the new tail may be shorter when completely grown-still, a far better fate than being eaten!

A Virginia Wildlife Action Plan Rating Tier II species, the glass lizard faces a high risk of extinction in Va, and it requires active conservation. With dwindling populations and a limited distribution, these reptiles are becoming a rare sight in Virginia. Be sure to check out the glass lizard exhibit during your next visit to the Virginia Living Museum; the lizard is an incredibly unique animal that faces an uncertain future in our home state.

Our Snakes Have A Superpower!

April 4, 20117

Residing in our Mountain Cove habitarium, the canebrake rattlesnake is one of the VLM’s pit viper species. Being a venomous snake, the rattlesnake has a formidable reputation and many people regard this reptile with fear and caution due to its potentially life-threatening toxin. But upon inspection, our canebrake rattlesnake often appears quite lazy, curled up and not moving for hours or days at a time. This is all part of the pit viper hunting strategy; as ambush predators, rattlesnakes lie in wait for long periods of time, then strike out with a venomous bite when prey wanders just within reach. To ensure the snake doesn’t miss a meal, it employs a real-life superpower.

Photo Credit: Karl Rebenstorf

A 2016 study found that most snakes, including rattlesnakes, are capable of reaching mind-boggling speeds when striking at prey. Their super-speed is almost impossibly fast and each strike lasts between 44 and 70 milliseconds! By comparison, it takes you almost 200 milliseconds just to blink your eyes once! Their prey doesn’t stand a chance; at such speeds, the snake will have landed the killing blow before the target even realizes it is under attack. It is a sound strategy as it ensures the snakes will almost always get its meal.

Photo Credit: Karl Rebenstorf

This super fast movement is all thanks to a ton of muscles. While you have between 700 and 800 muscles in your whole body, even the smallest snake has between 10,000 and 15,000 muscles in its body. Their ability to strike at high speeds likely comes from their muscles being connected, building up huge quantities of energy and snapping out at high speed like a rubber band. But because the snake moves so fast, it experiences forces that would make a human (and most other animals) lose consciousness! A striking snake may experience up to 30G (30 times the force of gravity)…even the most seasoned fighter jet pilot would lose consciousness shortly after reaching 10G!

Photo Credit: Karl Rebenstorf

Moving at high speeds, snakes impact their prey with incredible force, so they must have some means of protecting their brain. The brain is a very sensitive organ and can be easily hurt by high speeds and impacts; this is why American football players wear helmets to reduce the risk of concussions or other injuries. The unique shape of a snake’s skull protects the brain during high-speed collisions.

“The skull of a snake is incredibly kinetic and mobile. There are so many different joints which allow stretching and mobility. It could be that if one part lands first, it can absorb a little bit of shock before that’s transferred to another part, so the snake can absorb the impact of the strike far easier and it doesn’t concuss them.” -David Penning, University of Louisiana (Source)

Photo Credit: Karl Rebenstorf

Researchers are now studying how snakes tolerate large forces to see if these tactics could help protect humans from powerful forces. Just think, by studying how snakes attack, we might be able to create cars that better protect drivers and passengers during bad accidents! It’s just one more example in the long list of ways even the most feared snakes are helping people. In the meantime, be sure to come visit the Canebrake Rattlesnake, the real-life superhero of the VLM!

Article Link

Herp Highlight #8: Cave Salamanders

August 7, 2016

It’s been a hot couple of weeks here in Virginia, but did you know that caves remain nice and cool despite the summer heat? In fact, most caves remain at about 50 degrees F all year round! Providing a shelter against poor weather conditions and extremely high or low temperatures, caves are havens for a variety of animals that prefer consistent temperatures. Lurking deep within a cave, similar to our Virginia Underground Gallery, one might discover a wide range of salamanders living in the perpetual darkness!

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Many plethodontid or “lungless” salamander species inhabit North American caves. They have adapted to live in complete darkness, and are safe from many of the perils of life on the surface. Thanks to the unwavering temperatures of a cave, these animals can remain active year round.

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Life in total darkness has its share of challenges. Animals must adapt to be able to find food in the absence of light. Cave salamanders are predatory species, and prey on insects and other arthropods. So how do they find their food? Using a special organ called the nasolabial groove, a small slit between the nostril and the lip, these salamanders use chemoreception to hunt. This organ is lined with sensory glands, and much like a snake’s tongue, allows them to sense chemical cues in their environment!

During enrichment, our herpetology keepers provide crickets to our cave salamanders so they can practice their natural hunting behaviors even on exhibit!

During enrichment, our herpetology keepers provide crickets to our cave salamanders so they can practice their natural hunting behaviors even on exhibit!

Here at the VLM, our salamander exhibit contains two of the plethodontid species commonly found in Virginia’s caves: the Spotted-Tail Salamander (more widely known simply as the Cave Salamander) and the Atlantic Coast Slimy Salamander. You can visit them in our cave habitat where they climb the stony walls and swim in still pools.

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(Top) The Atlantic Coast Slimy Salamander is generally black with occasional white speckles or blotches. (Bot) The Spotted Tail (or Cave) Salamander is easily identified by its bright orange hue and black speckling.

Caves are pristine habitats that host an abundance of wildlife despite their seemingly hostile environment. Many of the species that live there, including amphibians, are incredibly sensitive organisms are are often negatively affected by human activity. The caves themselves are filled with delicate features, some so fragile that they can be disturbed by changes in light levels, humidity, temperature and even air flow! For these reasons, caves are protected by state and federal laws, prohibiting tampering that may ultimately damage those habitats.

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All kinds of amazing structures can be found in caves, created by water flowing through the cave carrying calcium and other minerals.

You might not be able to find a real cave to escape the summer heat, but guests are always welcome to cool off in our Virginia Underground Gallery! Come to the VLM and see our cave salamanders close up, alongside the other animals that call Virginia caves their home!

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Identifying Common Snakes

July 28, 2016

I recently posted an instructional guide on what to do if/when you find a snake in your yard. Today, I thought it’d be a good idea to briefly introduce a few snake species so that homeowners might better be able to identify the snakes that most commonly turn up in local yards. Virginia is home to more than thirty species of snakes, but I’ve narrowed this post down to just a handful of species that are encountered most frequently around local homes and gardens.

Eastern Rat Snake:

More commonly known as the Black Rat Snake, this snake is Virginia’s longest native snake, capable of reaching up to 8 feet in length! It is one of the most commonly encountered snakes on the East Coast, and can regularly be found in close proximity to humans and their homes. While their sheer size makes them formidable, Eastern Rat Snakes are actually very docile, and will typically flee at the first chance when encountering people. As their name suggests, they feed predominantly on rodents, drawing them closer to people where mice and rats are most active. They are generally black in color, though some, like the photo, may still retain some of their juvenile coloration (young rat snakes are grey with black splotches), and have a black and white “checkerboard” pattern on their belly. They are a very arboreal species, commonly found in trees, barns and the occasional attic.

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Eastern Garter Snake:

The eastern garter snake is a very commonly seen resident of Virginia. Though it doesn’t grow nearly as large as the rat snakes, it can still reach a respectable four feet in length when fully grown! Garter snakes are beneficial to people because they consume small rodents and insects that we deem as pests, but may also feed on fish, worms, frogs, eggs, leeches and even other snakes. If disturbed, a garter snake may bite, but will generally also release a foul smelling musk, prompting a predator to release it. The are easily identified by three yellow strips running down the length of their bodies, with a checkerboard pattern of spots between the stripes. Home owners will not find garter snake eggs on their property, as these snakes actually bear live young and do not lay eggs at all!

Photo Credit: Karl Rebenstorf

Photo Credit: Karl Rebenstorf

Rough Earth Snake:

The Rough Earth Snake is a very small, fossorial (burrowing) species, typically only found when gardening or doing yard work that requires digging. At first glance, they may be mistaken as an earthworm, as even the largest specimens are generally less than 10 inches in length! Although they may be encountered in small groups, earth snakes are completely harmless and have never been known to bite even when handled (If necessary, these snakes can be safely picked up and relocated, but like any wild animal, one should avoid handling as much as possible). Rough earth snakes may be brown, gray or even reddish but have no patterns or coloration except for a light band around the neck in juveniles. If they encounter a predator, Rough Earth Snakes may lie still or play dead until the threat passes.

Eastern King Snake:

The Eastern King Snake is an average sized snake, generally maxing out around 3 1/2 – 4 feet. Like the eastern rat snake, the king snake is mostly jet black in color, but is easily identified by the presence of white bands or a chain-link pattern. Though they are nonvenomous and fairly docile, king snakes may bite if cornered or handled, and should be left alone whenever possible. If disturbed, a they may shake their tail much like a rattlesnake and discharge a foul smelling musk. Despite this, many homeowners appreciate the king snake because it feeds largely on other snake species, including venomous species like copperheads and rattlesnakes!

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Northern Brown Snake:

Also commonly called the Dekay’s Brown Snake, the Brown Snake is another small species of snake, rarely attaining more than a foot in length. It is generally brown or gray, with a central light stripe running down the body bordered by two rows of black spots. Like garter snakes, Brown Snakes feed on a host of invertebrates, most notably earthworms, slugs and snails. Commonly found in yards and gardens, the Brown Snake is completely harmless and docile!

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By and large, the snakes we most commonly encounter near our homes are nonvenomous and completely harmless. They are beneficial animals that do much for us in the way of pest control, and we can live comfortably alongside these species with little to no comflict. To learn more about these snakes, and the other snake species of Virginia, come check out the Virginia Living Museum and see them up close! And don’t forget to be on the lookout for these awesome guys the next time you’re relaxing outside, doing a bit of yard work or looking for your next Pokemon!

Note: The snakes of Virginia inhabit different ranges and may occur more commonly in certain areas than others. This post focuses on just a few of the most common species found in Newport News and the Tide Water region. For more information, please consult local field guides on the species native to your area.

 

Timber Rattlesnake Feeding (Video)

Most people have a basic understanding of how snakes kill their prey; some snakes, such as boas and pythons, constrict their prey, squeezing it to death before consuming, while others, such as cobras and vipers, envenomate their prey with deadly toxins. But then what happens after the hunt? How does a snake eat its prey without the use of arms of legs? And how on earth do they swallow prey larger than their own heads? Well the herpetology department filmed the following video to show you just how they accomplish it!

(NOTE: The following video features a Timber Rattlesnake eating a small rat. The Virginia Living Museum does NOT feed its snakes live prey.)

All snakes are carnivores and consume their prey whole. Their jaw is double jointed, so when eating the jaw can “unhinge” and open as wide as 150 degrees! This allows them to stretch their head to accommodate large prey. In humans, our upper jaw is fused to the skull, where as a snake’s upper jaw is attached to the rest of the skull by muscles, ligaments and tendons, allowing the two sides of the jaw to move somewhat independently of each other. The bones that make up the lower jaw are not fused at the front, meaning the lower jaw can separate and move independently as well. As you can see in the video, once the snake has the prey in it’s mouth, it “walks” its jaws forward, one side pulls the prey in with curved, gripping teeth while the other side stretches forward for the next bite. For the rattlesnake in the video, this entire process only took about 9 minutes! Once in the esophagus, muscles will begin crushing the food as it moves into the digestive tract. Snakes are able to digest their prey whole…fur, bones and all!

The Virginia Living Museum herpetology department feeds its snakes just once a week. Each snake receives food relative to their body size; small snakes will get a small mouse while large snakes, like our rattlesnake, will get a rat. All of our snakes are fed frozen rodents that have been thawed and warmed up, and do not eat any live prey (it is much easier for them to eat food that is already dead!).

If you enjoyed the video, be sure to visit the Virginia Living Museum this summer and check out all the awesome adaptations exhibited by our snakes and other animals! You never know what you’ll see them do!